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“Aah krta hon to andesha-e-ruswai hy,

“Dekhta hon to hzaron hein mere apny mgr,
“Sochta hon to wohi aalam-e-tanhai"

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Please understand that this blog is just a collection of randomly collected thoughts and articles, these articles may be mine or collected while browsing, However under no circumstances is this Blog meant in a negative way or to hurt any person/community.
Be Light Hearted Enjoy the reading.

I could not forget you ever, unless you threw me out..... Perhaps my life ends but my love will never end for you...

You may find yourself in me if u have that quality... I never put people in Recycle Bin.... If I wish to forget people than I simply use shift+delete to Permanent delete from my heart..

Whenever I feel bad bcoz of you... Its not a big problem... it would be just for a while... at that moment just leave me there.. I will be back to you on the day of Judgement.

Tuesday, 17 November 2015

Migraine do's and don'ts

Migraine do's and don'ts
Lifestyle awareness: Migraine do's and don'ts (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)

A kind of vascular headache, migraines are caused by nerve swellings that result in expansion of blood vessels in the brain.

Inflammation leads to further enlargement of arteries, which in turn escalates into debilitating pain. Usually accompanied by nausea and photophobia, it is one of the most under-diagnosed and under-treated problems. Today we have, Dr Praveen Gupta, Consultant, Neurology at Artemis Health Institute, Gurgaon take us through the top 12 list of do's and don'ts when you are suffering from migraines.

- Patients, who have been diagnosed with migraine, should continue to take the prescribed medication.

- Migraine patients should avoid exposure to frequent temperature change.

- Avoid any alternative treatments at home.

- It is important to remember that migraines, at times, can be fatal. So, it is advisable to seek medical advice.

- Ensure that you get 6-8 hrs of sound sleep.

- Yoga, meditation & morning walks are a few ways to keep you healthy. Maintain a daily routine of exercise.

- An unhealthy lifestyle can lead to migraines, specially skipping meals or not eating on time. A migraine patient should avoid fasting and food containing fat.

- Avoid strong perfumes.

- Stress could be a big reason for triggering migraines.

- Avoid direct sunlight. Use goggles and umbrellas when stepping out in the day.

- Avoid prolonged use of analgesics.

- Paracetamol or aspirin work well for many migraine attacks. (Children under 16 should not take aspirin.) Take a dose as early as possible after symptoms begin. If you take painkillers early enough, they often reduce the severity of the headache, or stop it completely.

Stay well Harry Puttar

The horrific attacks in Paris on Friday - 13 November in 2015

The horrific attacks in Paris on Friday have, predictably, led to much over-reaction and demands that we do more of the exact things that radicalize people and make them want to attack us. The French military wasted no time bombing Syria in retaliation for the attacks, though it is not known where exactly the attackers were from. Thousands of ISIS fighters in Syria are not Syrian, but came to Syria to overthrow the Assad government from a number of foreign countries -- including from France and the US.
Ironically, the overthrow of Assad has also been the goal of both the US and France since at least 2011.
Because the US and its allies are essentially on the same side as ISIS and other groups – seeking the overthrow of Assad – many of the weapons they have sent to the more “moderate” factions also seeking Assad’s ouster have ended up in the hands of radicals. Moderate groups have joined more radical factions over and over, taking their US-provided training and weapons with them. Other moderate groups have been captured or killed, their US-provided weapons also going to the radicals. Thus the more radical factions have become better equipped and better trained, while occasionally being attacked by US or allied planes.
Does anyone not believe this is a recipe for the kind of disaster we have now seen in Paris? The French in particular have been very active in arming even the more radical groups in Syria, as they push for more political influence in the region. Why do they still refuse to believe in the concept of blowback? Is it because the explanation that, “they hate us because we are free,” makes it easier to escalate abroad and crack down at home?
It may not be popular to say this as emotions run high and calls ring out for more bombing in the Middle East, but there is another way to address the problem. There is an alternative to using more military intervention to address a problem that was caused by military intervention in the first place.
That solution is to reject the militarists and isolationists. It is to finally reject the policy of using “regime change” to further perceived US and western foreign policy goals, whether in Iraq, Libya, Syria, or elsewhere. It is to reject the foolish idea that we can ship hundreds of millions of dollars worth of weapons to “moderates” in the Middle East and expect none of them to fall into the hands of radicals.
More bombs will not solve the problems in the Middle East. But a more promising approach to the Middle East is currently under fire from the isolationists in Washington. The nuclear deal with Iran ends UN sanctions and opens that country to international trade. Just last week the presidents of France and Iran met to discuss a number of trade deals. Other countries have followed. Trade and respect for national sovereignty trumps violence, but Washington still doesn’t seem to get it. Most presidential candidates compete to thump the table loudest against any deal with Iran. They will use this attack to propagandize against approving trade with Iran even though Iran has condemned the attack and is also in the crosshairs of ISIS.
Here is the alternative: Focus on trade and friendly relations, stop shipping weapons, abandon “regime change” and other manipulations, respect national sovereignty, and maintain a strong defense at home including protecting the borders from those who may seek to do us harm.
We should abandon the failed policies of the past, before it’s too late.
Copyright © 2015 by RonPaul Institute. Permission to reprint in whole or in part is gladly granted, provided full credit and a live link are given.

Friday, 13 November 2015

Loneliness makes your brain work differently, study shows

From the 95-year-old couple who called 999 because they wanted someone to talk to, to the John Lewis Christmas advert which is taking the nation by storm for its touching relationship between an old man and a little girl, the issue of loneliness has never been more prominent. 

In recent weeks we've also heard about the pensioner who rang a local BBC radio station to tell them he missed his wife, and have received sobering statistics from charity Age UK who say a million elderly people often go a whole month without speaking to anyone. 

And now researchers have shown being lonely can actually have a physical impact on your brain. 

The study, published in the journal Cortex, was led by married researchers Stephanie and John Cacioppo, from the University of Chicago, who are experts on the psychology and neuroscience of loneliness. 

They found that lonely people's brains differ from those of non-lonely people, Medical Daily reported. 

In fact, lonely people are actually more alert to threats and the possible danger of strangers, because their brains become more active in social situations. 

Psychology Today reported that when we feel socially isolated our nervous systems automatically switch into 'self-preservation mode', which makes us more abrasive and defensive - even if there's actually no threat. 

The researchers found this out by distributing a 'loneliness questionnaire' to 38 'very lonely' people and 32 people who 'didn't feel lonely'. 

They defined feeling lonely as a subjective feeling of isolation, rather than number of friends or close relatives. 

They used electrodes on subjects' heads to record brain waves, and also conducted a Stroop Test using words such as "belong", "party," "alone", "solitary", "joy" and "sad" - which were tagged as either 'social/positive', 'social/negative', 'nonsocial/positive' and 'nonsocial/negative' to see the different ways they responded. 

They found lonely people became highly vigilant when the words were regarded as 'socially negative', whereas non-lonely people responded in similar ways to both social and nonsocial negative words. 

In conclusion, they surmised that lonely people's brains are conditioned to tune into social threats faster than what is considered 'normal'. 

And this hyper-vigilance to respond to social threats could be rooted in the subconscious. 

"Our evolutionary model of the effects of perceived social isolation (loneliness) on the brain as well as a growing body of behavioral research suggests that loneliness promotes short-term self-preservation, including an increased implicit vigilance for social, in contrast to nonsocial, threats," they wrote in the study. 

They also found that even though the test was designed to be fast and reactive, to give subjects little time to think about their answers, lonely people picked out socially threatening words like "hostile" and negative nonsocial words like "vomit" more quickly too. 

And they said that this suggests lonely people are subconsciously looking out for negativity. 

Friday, 30 October 2015

Karwa Chauth 2015: Make Your Marriage Immortal

Karwa Chauth 2015: Make Your Marriage Immortal

I never wanted the stars, 
never shot for the moon, 
I like them right where they are,,,
All I wanted was You Aas!
Happy Karwa Chauth

Karwa Chauth in 2015 is on October 30 (Today) The day to bless your marriage with the life of Moon, Karva Chauth is not just about fasting. It is the day of cherishing the bond of love and saying thanks to your beloved for all those beautiful moments in a unique way. Let’s read more about this beautiful day...
arwa Chauth in 2015 is on October 30.Karwa Chauth is one day festival, which is celebrated mainly in North India. It falls on the fourth day of the Krishna Paksha (dark fortnight) of the month Kartik or before nine days of Diwali.
On Karva Chauth, full day fasting will be observed by married or unmarried ladies. North Indian married or unmarried women observe the fast of Karwa Chauth for the well being and long life of their husbands, or for their fiances. The Karva Chauth fast starts after sunrise and extend till the moonrise. Full Moon is seen on Karva Chauth, or on the fourth night of the Krishna Paksha, of the month Kartik.
Karva and Chauth are Hindi words that refer to “pot” and “fourth” (as it falls on the fourth day of the dark fortnight of month Kartik), respectively. Different mud pots are taken by the ladies, each refers to the name of their husbands. Each woman honor her pot and use it to deliver water to the Moon, after moonrise. There are some other facts also, that should be known before celebrating Karwa Chauth in 2015. So, let’s discuss these facts to celebrate Karva Chauth in 2015 in a more delightful manner.

Significance of Karva Chauth

Let’s discuss the significance of Karwa Chauth festival.
Read about the Significance of Karwa Chauth 2015 festival.Karva Chauth is an important fast for the ladies of North India. They strongly believe that, if the fast is observed with full faith and devotion, it will help in the welfare of their husbands.
Now-a-days, in modern society, it is considered as a romantic festival, in which women observe fast for their husbands, and husbands give them different gifts in return. It is also a major time of family get-together. During the moonrise, all family members come together and perform the rituals, followed by dinner. It provides an opportunity for ladies, to get closer to their in-laws and even more closer to their husbands. Celebrate Karva Chauth in 2015 with full devotion to take the blessings for your husband’s long life.

Karva Chauth 2015: Rituals and Traditions

Now, let’s take a look on the rituals and traditions followed by ladies before celebrating Karva Chauth in 2015; so, that we can celebrate Karwa Chauth in 2015 by keeping in mind these traditions.
Days before the festival of Karva Chauth, ladies start preparing for this special festival. They shop for the things, which are considered important for the married women such as cosmetics, bangles, jewelery and new clothes. There is also a tradition of applying henna or Mehndi tattoo on hands. It is believed that it brings good luck to the life of couple.
Another very important tradition related to Karwa Chauth is Sargi. Sargi includes the food items presented by the in-laws to their daughter-in-law. It is consumed by the ladies who observe fast before sunrise. Women awake before sunrise to have some food as Sargi. In Punjab, the Sargi must include Fenia (traditional food, cooked in milk), Matthi, dry fruits and fruits. It is believed that Sargi helps the women to observe fast, the whole day, without any weakness.
There is also a tradition of wearing good clothes by all the married ladies, as it is a mark of celebration on Karwa Chauth.

Celebrations Of Karwa Chauth 2015

Different rituals are performed by women during Karva Chauth 2015.Before celebrating Karwa Chauth in 2015, let’s first discuss about how to celebrate Karwa Chauth festival?
Women who observe fast of Karva Chauth awake before sunrise for consuming Sargi or other food items. Their fast starts after sunrise. During the daytime, they decorate their hands with Henna or Mehndi, wear bangles, Tika, Bindi and other cosmetics, and get ready for the rituals. The way of performing rituals is different from place to place or communities.
Karwa Chauth Celebrations In Punjab
In Punjab, all the ladies gather at a central place like at someone's home, to perform the rituals with their decorated Puja Thalis (plates). They all sit in a circular order and an elderly lady narrates the Karva Chauth story. They sing the Karva Chauth traditional songs together and rotate their Puja Thalis throughout the circle. These rotations are called Feris. Seven Feris of Puja Thalis are carried out by ladies while performing the ritual of Karva Chauth. Then, they wait for the moonrise and do other preparations for the festival. Women from Punjab will follow the same tradition for celebrating Karwa Chauth in 2015.
Celebrations In Uttar Pradesh, Haryana & Rajasthan
In the area of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan, all the ladies of the family come together to perform the rituals of Karwa Chauth. They sit together and an elderly lady narrates the story of Veeravati or the Karwa Chauth Katha. This story narration takes place in front of the idol of Maa Parvati, and the Karvas of Karva Chauth. After the completion of story or Katha, the ladies take blessings from their mother-in-law by touching her feet. Then, they all wait for the moonrise for further rituals.
When the Moon arises, all the women come together to worship Moon. They use a sieve to view the Moon indirectly with a lighten lamp. Then they turn around, and view their husbands in the same way by using the sieve. They offer prayers to Moon for the long life and well being of their husbands. Husbands offer water and some sweet as the blessed food to their wives, and the fast is now broken. The wives can now take the complete meal. This is how the couples celebrate Karwa Chauth.

Legends Of Karva Chauth

Let’s now discuss the legends of Karva Chauth before celebrating it in 2015, so that we can understand the true reason for celebrating Karwa Chauth in 2015.
Story Of Veeravati
Veeravati was a Queen and was the only sister of seven brothers. Her brothers were very protective toward her. When she observed her first fast of Karva Chauth, at her parent's house, she was eagerly waiting for the moonrise, as she was not able to control her thirst and hunger. Her brothers couldn't see her in this condition. They tried a trick of mirroring bright light behind the Pipal tree. They told her that she can consume the meal as the Moon has risen. Veeravati was convinced by their trick and consumed the meal. The moment she ate, the news arrived that her husband was dead. She started crying and asked Maa Parvati that why it happened. Then, Maa Parvati came and told her about the trick of her brothers. Maa Parvati advised her to observe the fast again with full faith and devotion to get her husband back into her life. Veeravati admit her mistake and promised to observe the fast again and every year with full faith and devotion for the well being and long life of her husband.
Legend Of Mahabharta
Once Arjun went to Nilgiris for penance. All the Pandavas and Draupadi were very worried about the well being of Arjun. Draupadi approached to Lord Krishna for help. She asked Lord Krishna to protect Arjun from any danger or hazard. Lord Krishna told her that the love and faith of a married woman has the power to save her husband from any risk or danger of life. He advised her to observe the fast of Karwa Chauth with dedication, it will help Arjun to get out of all dangers successfully.
Story Of Karva
Karva was a loving wife, who was deeply in love with her husband. Her deep love toward her husband provided her some spiritual power. Once, her husband was caught by a crocodile in a pond. With her spiritual powers, Karva bound the crocodile with a cotton yarn, and asked Yama to send him to hell. Yama refused to do so. Karva threatened Yama that she will curse and destroy him. Being threatened from the curse of a loyal wife, he agreed and sent crocodile to hell. He also blessed Karva's husband with long life. This story also tells about the power of love of a devotional wife as well as Karva Chauth. So, don’t miss that chance and observe fast of Karva Chauth in 2015.
Story Of Satyavan & Savitri
Savitri was a devoted wife, who was deeply in love with her husband. One day, her husband died and his soul was taken away by the lord of death Yama, she stopped drinking and eating anything, and prayed Yama to return her husband back to life. Yama told her that she can ask for any other boon, except the life of her husband. Savitri asked for kids from her husband. Yama agreed, but being a devoted wife, Savitri never let any other man to be her husband. Yama left with no other choice, but he had to restore Savitri's husband to life.
These legends encourage the tradition of Karva Chauth. Let’s now talk about the special delicacies cooked on this day to make your Karwa Chauth in 2015 more happening.
Today is Karva Chauth every married women have fast today for their husband. Why married women have fast on Karwa Chauth? In Hindu Religion the fast of Karwa Chauth have do for the safe and long life of Husband. Women don’t eat and drink any thing whole day after see the moon in night they take food and water. In the evening they do worship of Vidha Mata. The good timing of the poojan of Vidhi Mata is after 5:00 pm. All the ladies sit together and do this pooja.
After that Ladies started to wait of Chand (Moon). On Karwa chauth movie rise after 8:00 or 8:30 pm. All the Ladies give Water to Moon and see the face of their husband within Channi. Now ladies drink water first then take food. In different families females eat different kind of recipes on this day.

7 signs of a toxic relationship

7 signs of a toxic relationship
7 signs of a toxic relationship (Getty Images)

When you are in a new relationship, the heady addictive feeling gets to you. And that is why, sometimes you invariably are blinded to the fact that the relationship may be corrosive. Here are a few signs.

When you are in a new relationship, the heady addictive feeling gets to you. And that is why, sometimes you invariably are blinded to the fact that the relationship may be corrosive. It may be doing you more harm than good. Here are some warning signs that can help you know whether you are in a toxic relationship.

Your relationship drains you: Research suggests that 70% of our energy drains are emotional, says health psychologist Dr Kanan Khatau Chikhal. She adds, "One of the first signs of a toxic relationship is how you feel after you meet your partner. Do you feel high-spirited and motivated or do you feel like a deflated balloon? It is subjective feeling." You need to move away from a relationship that stresses you out and takes away more than it can give you.

You're walking on eggshells: Do you think twice before uttering any line to your partner? The persistent fear of saying or doing something that might aggravate or upset him is a clear signal that your relationship is not balanced in your favour.

You start following your partner's habits to impress: Do you feel pressurised to drink more than what you are comfortable with, when you are out with your partner? Do you feel that you need to take up smoking just to impress him/her? If your relationship is making you take up negative habits, then you need to rethink.

Jealousy rears its ugly head: Jealousy and over possessiveness could be a symptom of an inferiority complex, states psychiatrist Dr Anjali Chhabria. "Initially, you feel happy that your partner wants to know every little detail about your day but over time, you realise that it is not because he/she loves you, but because he/she is insecure. This is unhealthy and can be a symptom of a larger problem like paranoia or a delusional disorder, which, if not acknowledged or treated, could become suffocating for the partner," she adds.

Your past errors are dug up frequently: When a partner resorts to citing examples like 'This is what you always do. Last month also...' or 'You were like this with your ex too', you know your relationship may be treading dangerous ground. Dr Chhabria says, "When a partner is insecure, he/she may be making a case history against you on a sub-conscious level. Anything that happens, he/she immediately recollects the past examples and keeps mentioning them. He/she doesn't concentrate on nor tries to solve the issue at hand." Ghosts of the past usually torment this kind of person, making life difficult for you too.

Your relationship is all about your partner: When you stop paying attention to your close friends and family because your partner takes up all your time, you should see the red flag. Dr Chhabria, says, "If you are unable to concentrate on anything because you are always catering to your partner's insecurities, you could be in a toxic relationship." Citing an example, she says that a girl had forgotten to wish her best friend on her birthday because her boyfriend took up all her time, and their relationship was always all about him.

Your partner's too clingy: In any relationship, one partner may assume that the other is very dependable, because he/she may fulfil certain psychological requirements that the other may have. When that partner is unavailable, one starts to get insecure and grumpy. This leads to the uncontrollable urge to be with the partner 24X7 and could be bad for the relationship. Sometimes, it results in stalking the partner or being insanely over possessive. Such an over-clingy and needy partner could be the reason for the end of a relationship.

Friday, 24 April 2015

Wo milta hi nahin mujhse sambhal ke

Wo milta hi nahin mujhse sambhal ke
magar jadu hai aanchal tak na dhalke

Kahan tewar hain unme ab wo kal ke
hawa chalne lagi hai rukh badal ke

Judai ki ghadi hai dushmane dil
bala hai ye nahin talti hai tal ke

Ada unki maza deti hai humko
maza ata hai unko dil masal ke

Wajoode shamma ko khatra hua hai
ki khud aatash hua parwana jal ke

Paheli ban ke wo ojhal hua hai
kiye hain band dar sab usne hal ke

Wafa ke phool tab samjho khilenge
jo ayega koi kanton pe chal ke

Wo kar dete hain namumkin ko mumkin
meri aaghosh men aksar machal ke

Nazar ke teer nazuk hain tumhare
jabhi purlutf hain ye waar halke

Wednesday, 4 March 2015

Urdu couplets are elixir for brain; learning the language helps prevent dementia

Urdu couplets are elixir for brain; learning the language helps prevent dementia

Reading an Urdu couplet is not only a delight for your soul but also an elixir for your brain. A recent study by the Center for Bio-Medical Researches (CBMR), Lucknow, suggests that reading Urdu passages helps in brain development.

The work, which has made it to the recent edition of international journal 'Neuroscience Letters', has shown that reading the language involves predominant involvement of the frontal brain which controls a number of cognitive functions like decision making, the ability to determine good from bad, emotional control, coping with stress, processing information and analysing. Learning Urdu also has a role in delaying the onset of dementia, besides helping children with learning disabilities.

Uttam Kumar, a faculty member in the department of neuroimaging at CBMR, who conducted the research on subjects from the city, said the conclusion was drawn on the basis of mapping the brain of subjects when they read Urdu text for a stipulated time. The mapping was done using functional magnetic resonance imaging technique, a world-class technology used to study structural and functional aspects of the brain.

Learning of a language creates a certain pattern in the brain which can be identified by linking different neurons involved. Joining all dots refers to mapping. Though the basic contour of this pattern for all languages is the same, the structure tends to differ at a micro level because of scripts and subsequent speech sounds (phonetics). Languages are also differentiated on the basis of orthography or difference between grapheme (seeing written letters) and phoneme (encoding and translating the written into spoken letters) mapping.

"We used grapheme-phoneme mapping which divides languages into 'transparent' (easy to learn) or 'deep' (difficult to learn). For example: Hindi and German are transparent while English and French are deep. Urdu is the deepest language and therefore reading it involves more areas of the brain, which is good for mental health," said Kumar adding, "Urdu has two more advantages over others — visual complexity of letters and direction of writing."

The study found that reading Urdu involved dominant participation of the middle and superior regions of the frontal part of the brain. "Both these areas control majority of cognitive functions of the brain such as decision making, emotional control, coping with stress, analying things and processing information," he said adding that its role in decision making was most important. "It governs the ability to determine the good from the bad along with consequences of action," he stated, citing the Journal of Cognitive Neurosciences.

The work examined effects of graphene-phoneme mapping over neural regions in bilingual people and suggested that Hindi and Urdu made a good combination. "This works very well because they are mutually comprehensible languages and have a shared vocabulary," Kumar said. Researchers at Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, have already shown that bilingualism delays the age of onset of Alzheimers and other dementia. It also found that the Urdu-Hindi combo was beneficial for children with learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia, as it improves functioning of the visual cortex.

What is Dementia :
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember such that a person's daily functioning is affected. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation. A person's consciousness is not affected. For the diagnosis to be present it must be a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's caregivers.

The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease which makes up 50% to 70% of cases. Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), Lewy body dementia (15%), and frontotemporal dementia. Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others. More than one type of dementia may exist in the same person. A small proportion of cases run in families. In the DSM-5, dementia was reclassified as a neurocognitive disorder, with various degrees of severity.Diagnosis is usually based on history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood work used to rule out other possible causes. The mini mental state examination is one commonly used cognitive test. Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and obesity. Screening the general population for the disease is not recommended.

There is no cure for dementia. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disease. Overall benefit, however, may be minor. For people with dementia and those who care for them many measures can improve their lives. Cognitive and behavioral interventions may be appropriate. Educating and providing emotional support to the caregiver is important. Exercise programs are beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and potentially improve outcomes. Treatment of behavioral problems or psychosis due to dementia with antipsychotics is common but not usually recommended due to there often being little benefit and an increased risks of death.

Globally, dementia affects 36 million people. About 10% of people develop the disease at some point in their lives. It becomes more common with age. About 3% of people between the ages of 65–74 have dementia, 19% between 75 and 84 and nearly half of those over 85 years of age. In 2013 dementia resulted in about 1.7 million deaths up from 0.8 million in 1990. As more people are living longer, dementia is becoming more common in the population as a whole. For people of a specific age; however, it may be becoming less frequent, at least in the developed world, due to a decrease in risk factors. It is one of the most common causes of disability among the old. It is believed to result in economic costs of 604 billion USD a year.People with dementia are often physically or chemically restrained to a greater degree than necessary, raising issues of human rights.Social stigma against those affected is common.

An Article from TOI -

Tuesday, 24 February 2015

9 kinds of biryani every food lover must know

9 kinds of biryani every food lover must know
Know your biryani (Thinkstock Photos/ Getty Images)
There are several ways to make biryani - each style loyal to its local gastronomic history. Here are the India specific ones that every rice or biryani lover should know about

The masses love it, politicians woo voters with it, and festivals are incomplete without it -the delicious biryani is the favourite of all.India has a wide variety to choose from when it comes to this royal dish.Top chefs talk about the distinctive features of each biryani, and what makes them special...

Hyderabadi Biryani (Andhra Pradesh)
Hyderabadi biryani is one of the most popular dishes in south India. For many home cooks and chefs, this dish from Mughlai cuisine is quite a challenge to make, and each has his unique way of spicing it up. What makes it stand out is the usage of saffron and coconut. This biryani is cooked in layers - the most challenging part in its creation. While most other biryanis are always dominated by mutton and chicken gravy, here the saffronmixed-rice takes over.Serve it with brinjal gravy.

Dindigul Biryani (Tamil Nadu)
This one's a favourite in Chennai with many outlets dedi catedly serving just Dindigul biryani.The rice used in it is very different - jeera samba rice instead of Basmati, giving it an entirely new flavour. The biryani also uses cube-sized muttonchicken pieces instead of big chunks. Apart from the usual masala, a lot of pepper is used.

Ambir Biryani (Tamil Nadu)
It's hard to miss out on the Ambur biryani if you are in Tamil Nadu.Take a trip to the sleepy little town of Ambur and the first thing that'll strike you is the in numerable biryani stalls dotting the Chennai-Bengaluru highway. There's chicken, mutton, beef and prawn as options, with the flavour of mint and coriander standing out. The highlight of this biryani is the fact that chefs soak the meat in curd be fore adding it to the rice, which imparts a unique taste to the dish. Have it with onion raita and brinjal gravy.

Bhatkali Biryani (Coastal Karnataka)
Coastal Karnataka: Though low on spice, the Bhatkali biryani has the right amount of flavour. This particular style originated from the Nawayath Mus lim community of Bhatkal, in coastal Karnataka. They use a lot of onions, green chillies in their style of cooking - also in the layered format. Unlike Ambur biryani, in which mutton pieces are soaked in curd, Bhatkali biryani chefs cook muttonchicken pieces in curd. This eventually makes the biryani less spicy.

Lucknowi Biryani (Uttar Pradesh)
Uttar Pradesh: Based on the Persian style of cooking, the Lucknowi biryani is made with the use of a completely different method known as dum pukht. As is the norm with most Persian formats, the meat and gravy are partially cooked and then layered in the dum pukht style. Served in a sealed handi, Lucknowi biryani is light on the stomach as it is low on spices.

Kolkata Biryani (West Bengal)
West Bengal: Kolkata biryani has its roots in the Nawabi style biryani of Lucknow. The chefs from Awadhi kitchens brought the signature biryani recipe to Kolkata, which later got tweaked into the unique Kolkata biryani that we know today. The Kolkata biryani is unique, thanks to its subtle use of spices combined with ghee, Basmati rice and mutton. The addition of potatoes and boiled eggs also lends a different flavour to the d dish. Use of nutmeg along with saffron and kewra gives this biryani its signature aroma.

Malabar Biryani (Kerala)
Kerala: Malabar biryani, famous in Kozhikode, Thalassery and Malappuram areas of Kerala, is characterised by the unique variety of rice called khyma rice, the rich flavour of spices, and the generous usage of cashewnuts and raisins.Chefs in Kerala add these ingredients generously while preparing the biryani.The key difference lies in the method of preparation. The rice is cooked separately from mutton gravy and mixed well only at the time of serving.

Sindhi Biryani (Sind Province, Pakistan)
Pakistan: Sindhi biryani, which originated in Sind, Pakistan, is quite spicy and zesty.Sour curd, generous use of spices and chilli mark this form of biryani. Usage of kewra or mitha ittr is another differentiating factor. Sindhi biryani recipes also use potatoes and prunes.

Bombay Biryani (Maharashtra)
Maharashtra: What makes Bombay biryani special is the use of potatoes in it.Be it vegetarian or non-vegetarian biryani, potato is a must. The preparation uses a layered method, where half-cooked basmati rice and cooked meat are put on dum-style.


Dindigul biryani recipe

Jeera Samba rice: 1 kg (for 10) I Mutton: 1.5 kg 
Onion: 400 gm
Tomato: 400 gm 
Mint leaves: 1 bunch
Coriander leaves: 1 bunch
Ginger-garlic paste: 6 sp (approx 30 gm)
Cinnamon: 4
Cloves: 4
Star anise: 4 pieces
Marati moggu (type of caper): 4
Jathipathri: 4
Curd: 250 ml
Oil: 200 ml
Ghee: 50 ml
Chilli powder: 5 tsp
Coriander powder: 7 sp
Pepper powder: 4 tsp

Cut the mutton into small pieces and soak it in curd for 20 minutes. Wash the rice and soak it in water for half an hour. Keep the biryani vessel in the stove and add oil, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, star anise, marati moggu, jathipathri, mint leaves (50%) and coriander leaves (50 %). Then add sliced onions. Saute well until it turns transparent. Add gingergarlic paste, followed by sliced tomatoes. Mix well until it merges together. Add the mutton pieces along with the curd, coriander powder, chilli powder and then add a glass of water. Add the required amount of salt at this stage and cook the mutton. Once it is cooked, add the pepper powder, soaked jeera rice, the remaining mint and coriander leaves. When it starts bubbling, put the lid on the fire and add the weight (in dum style). Leave it for about 20 mins and then add ghee.Serve it with raita or brinjal curry.